BIOLOGY

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PAPER 3 BIOLOGY

TRANSPIRATION
Transpiration is the loss of water vapour through evaporation in living plant. The rate of transpiration is affected by external conditions.
Based on the above statement, plant a laboratory experiment to study the effect of wind movement on the rate of transpiration
Answer
Construct
Sample answer
Problem statement
What is the effect of different speed of air movement on the rate of transpiration?
Hypothesis
The faster the speed of air movement, the higher the rate of transpiration.
Variables
Manipulated variable : the speed of air
Responding variable : the rate of transpiration
Controlled variables : temperature/light intensity//humidity
List of apparatus and materials
Leafy shoot (any plant), distilled water, vaseline, capillary tube, rubber tubing, stopwatch, beaker, tissue paper/cloth, marker pen/thread, fan
Experimental procedure
1.       A leafy shoot is cut under water and the cut is kept in the water.
2.       The capillary tube and rubber tubing are filled with water and the leafy shoot is inserted into the rubber tubing.
3.       The leaves are wiped dry and some vaseline is put around the each ends of the rubber tubing to make it airtight.
4.       The photometer is placed in a beaker of water to allow water to move up a capillary tube for 5 minutes.
5.       A section of the capillary tube is marked A and B, a distance of 5 cm.
6.       The capillary tube is lifted from the beaker and the rubber tubing is pressed gently to squeeze out a drop of water from the capillary to trap an air bubble in the tube.
7.       The capillary tube is placed back into the beaker of water and kept upright using the retort stand.
8.       The photometer is placed under the low speed of fan for 10 minutes.
9.       The time taken for the air bubble to move from A to B is recorded by using the stopwatch.
10.   Steps 5 to 8 is repeated twice to get the average.
11.   The experiment is repeated under medium and strong speed of fan.
12.   The resuts obtained are recorded in the table.
13.   The rate of transpiration is calculated using formula :


Presentation of data
Wind speed
Readings
Rate of transpiration/ cmmin-1
First
Second
Third
Average
Slow





Medium





Fast






BOD
Construct
Sample answer
Problem statement
Which water sample is most polluted?
Hypothesis
The nearer the area of water sample to the factory/farm, the higher the level of pollution
The water in  area mention the area is most polluted
Variables
Manipulated variable : river water sample/water sample
Responding variable : time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise
Controlled variables : volume of water samples
List of apparatus and materials
Measuring cylinder, stopwatch, reagent bottle, beaker, 0.1% methylene blue solution, water samples W,X,and Y
Experimental procedure
1.       Water samples are collected from three different area by using beaker.
2.       Three reagent bottles are labelled X,Y and Z.
3.       Fill with 100ml of water sample from village X, Y and Z respectively.
4.       The test are run for all the water samples on the same day.
5.       Add 0.1% methylne blue solution to the base of each water sample by using a syringe.
6.       Close the reagent bottle quickly and place in the dark cupboard.
7.       Start the stopwatch.
8.       Examine the bottles at 1 hour interval.
9.       Measure the time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise.
10.   Repeat step 3 to 9 with water sample Y and Z.
11.   Record the time taken for the methylene blue solution to decolourise in the table.
Presentation of data

Water sample
X
Y
Z
Time taken for methylene blue solution to decolourise / min



Level of water pollution









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COMPILATIONS OF BIOLOGY ESSAYS FOR SPM.............
FORM 4,
FORM5 (CHAPTER 1 TO 3)


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Example




Phagocytosis


·         The pseupodia are also used for feeding.
·         Amoeba sp. engulfs food by phagocytosis.
·         Amoeba sp. is a holozoic organisms which feed on microscopic organisms such as bacteria.
·         The presence of food causes Amoeba sp.to advance by extending its pseupodia.
·         The pseupodia encloses the food which is then packaged in food vacoule.
·         The food vacoule fuses with lysosome and the food is digested by hydrolitic enzyme called lysozyme.
·         The resulting nutrients are absorbed into the cytoplasm.
·        
      Simple Diffusion


      Net movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
·         Going down concentration gradient until an equilibrium is achieved.
·         The particles are distibuted equally throughout the system.
·         The concentration gradient provides energy to move the molecules into and out of the cells.
·       


          Osmosis: the diffusion of water
     Net movement of freely moving water from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.//
·         Net movement of water from region higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration.//
·         Net movement of water from hypotonic region to hypertonic region.

**Choose any one 


Facilitated Diffusion


·         For water soluble molecules//molecules which are not soluble in lipids (ions, nucleic acid, amino acids and glucose)
·         Carrier Protein
·         The carrier protein function by binding to the molecules to pass through the plasma membrane.
·         The molecules move to the carrier protein which is specific for the molecules.
·         Molecules bind with the carrier protein at the active site.
·         Carrier protein changes its shape and pass the molecules through the plasma membrane.
§    
Active Transport
Movement of molecules or ions against the concentration gradient across the plasma membranes.
§  Requires both carrier proteins and expenditure of energy.
§  Energy from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that is generated during respiration in the mitochondria.
§  Has active sites which bind to the ATP molecules.
§  The carrier protein changes shape when the phosphate group from the ATP molecule binds to it
§  Then the solute is moved across the plasma membrane.
·        
        
Animal and plant cells in an isotonic solution
Solution in which the solute concentration is equal to that of the cytoplasmic fluid.
·         Water diffuse in and out of the cells at equal rate.
·         No net movement of water.
·         Cells retain its normal shape. 


     Hypotonic solution


Concentration of solute outside a cell is lower than concentration of solute inside cell.

Animal cells
·         Is said to be hypotonic solution.
·         Cell placed in hypotonic solution.
·         Net movement of water into the cells via osmosis.
·         Cell swells up.
·         When extremely hypotonic, cells will eventually burst
·         Cannot withstand the osmotic pressure because of thin plasma membrane.
·         E.g : red blood cells (haemolysis)

Plant cells
·         Do not burst
·         Rigid cell wall.
·         Water diffuse into vacoule of cell via osmosis.
·         Cell swells up and becomes turgid
·         Tugor pressure in plant.
·         Supporting the plant.
The concentration of solute in the solution is higher than the concentration of solutes within the cell.


Hypertonic solution
Animal cells
·         Net movement of water from inside to the outside of the cell.
·         Cells shrink//shrivel, internal pressure decrease.
·         Red blood cells immersed in hypertonic solution , the cell shrink and the plasma membrane crinkles up.
·         Cell undergone crenation.

Plant cells
·         Water diffuse out via osmosis.
·         Vacoule and cytoplasm shrink and plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall.
·         This process called plasmolysis.
·         Cell becomes flaccid.


Preservation of fish and vegetables
Fish
·         Fish is covered by salt solution which is hypertonic to body fluid/cell/tissue.
·         More water diffuses out from tissues into salt solution via osmosis.
·         Fish becomes hydrated.
·         Prevents bacterial growth in fish tissues.
·         Bacteria cells are also plasmolysed//crenated.
·         Prevent decay/last longer.

Vegetables
·         Vegetables are immersed in vinegar which is acidic//has low pH.
·         Vinegar diffuses into vegetables tissues.
·         Vegetables tissues becomes acidic//has low pH.
·         Prevents bacterial growth in tissues.
·         Preventing decay//last longer. 

5 comments:

ShVea Reara said...

Hi bro! Thanks for the Biology notes and essays. LOL! I've just found your site and Bio SPM paper is next week already! Anyway , what was your SPM result? You didn't mention it in your SAMURA section( I've read it). Seems like you haven't yet updated this blog for a long time. Nevertheless, congratulations! I know you excelled, though. :3
Thanks:)

Mal Mal said...

hye... thanks for visiting my blog... i read that u want to know my spm result.... i got 7A+ and 2A.. i took nine subjects only

Erika Norain said...

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mataaiisyurga said...

wow ! u're so great . straight a's ?
thanks for the note :)

Anonymous said...

Thank you!!! Its really helps me. May God bless you bro :D

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